Fenerbahçe Mahallesi, Fener Kalamış Cad.,Atlas Apt. No:12 Daire:5, 34726 Kızıltoprak-Kadıköy/Kadıköy/İstanbul

Mammaplasty

The breast's erotic nature is based on its evolutionary history. In primitive living beings, the smells of secretions secreted by females attracted males. The sense of smell has been the most important functions of living beings, for their communication with the environment. But in evolutionarily more advanced living beings, this communication is provided mostly in a visual way. The same goes for their sexuality. For example, in primates such as chimpanzees, female-specific organs become more prominent and gain a bright color during sexual arousal. The same occurred in human evolution, as well. When walking on all fours during his evolution, human began to stand on two legs and use his hands more actively. He also became able to well control the environment by opposing his thumb and index finger. Standing on two legs also changed the sexual behaviors. Although vision was still the most important senses in sexual stimulation, this stance took genitals away from the visual field. According to anthropologists, men began to perceive the breast, visible as a female-specific organ, and understand the virilism of someone of opposite sex from her breasts. The fact that in human beings breasts appear with puberty, whereas in other mammals they appear with the first pregnancy, is the most important evidence that breast is also a sexual organ in human. Breast has been the most important symbol of the erotic art history. It has been considered to be the portrait of fertility and sexual stimulation. The world art history is full of portraits and statues of women, with exposed breasts.

Society highlighted the erotic nature of breast in the second half of the 20th century. During this period, fashion designers began to uncover more parts of the body, which had been before covered with clothing. This, on the other hand, revealed some other problems. For example, hair that had been covered by clothing before that time began to be a problem. Hair considered to be normal for men was seen as shameful for women. Women began to use razor blades, depilators and electrolysis methods, with intent to have a baby like skin. Hair was only a part of the problem. Society was then looking for more perfection. For this purpose, cosmetics which would hide minor stains and make the nose, eyes and lips more attractive appeared. Every extra body area coming to light displayed some problems that catch the attention of people who seek perfection, such as excessive hair, skin blemish, and dent. Since women were less able to hide their bodies, they became obsessed with their weights by prioritizing their appearances rather than their health. Thus, thick legs, thin lips, fat bellies, large buttocks, and cellulite have become a social problem. Eventually, a huge cosmetics industry emerged. Among all the body parts, breast became the icon of eroticism and beauty in the American society. Sexual revolution was a cultural earthquake, the first vibration of which was felt in the United States in 1949. This architect of it was Norma Jean Baker, who posed for nude photos shot by photographer Tom Kelley, and then became famous with the name Marilyn Monroe. In a short time, calendars bearing those photos adorned almost all petrol stations, cafes, barber shops, and young men's rooms. Hugh Hefner, who has obtained the publishing right of those photos, published the “Playboy" magazine in 1953. The first edition sold 53,000 copies. The number of subscribers reached 100,000 after 1 year, and 600,000 after 3 years. Hefner's favorite model was Barbie Benton with her balloon breasts. In that period, models with small breasts were hardly seen in this kind of magazines. Being blonder and having bigger breasts were increasing the attractiveness of the models. Models such as Jane Mansfield and Dolly Parton were examples for them. After Playboy, many other soft-core magazines appeared at the market. Afterwards, the concept "big breasts are beautiful and sexy" was engraved in the American culture. In 1964, Carol Doda, who was a dancer at a nightclub in San Francisco, doubled her income and the number of the customers of the club by means of a new activity. He began to take off her bra during her dance. Thus, she brought the word "topless" in this industry. What made Doda this much popular was also her breasts, which looked like about to explode. Doda ensured it by getting periodic silicone injections into her breasts. Those processes caused lump formations in her breasts; however, she had the firmest breasts in the planet. The number of "Topless" night clubs increased rapidly across the country. That situation instigated the conservative people. Although restrictions were imposed in some states, that wave could not be prevented. Eventually, that was understood to be unavoidable, and the women in the country began to question their own statuses. As from that time, they unavoidably found themselves in the race, as well; and began to take notice of the bigness, firmness, and shape of their breasts. Women magazines began to publish articles related to breast beauty. Articles on many exercise programs, cosmetics, and creams intended for firmer breasts began to be published. The efforts of feminist groups, who emerged occasionally to express that breast is just a breastfeeding organ could not prevent the big breast frenzy. Since the capitalist system in the country created a competition environment in all fields, and since only the perfect ones were able to be raised in rank; beauty, youth and freshness were indispensable parameters for all the people, whether men or women. Because big breasts were a parameter of beauty, women began to consult surgeons for bigger breasts. Moreover, patients those who underwent mastectomy due to cancer began to have breast reconstruction surgeries, with intent not to get out the race.

People want to be beautiful. And the majority of them want to look beautiful as much as possible. Most of our physical appearance is hereditary and beyond our control. But some parameters can be controlled. Healthy nourishment and exercise are the best known ones among them. People wear nice garments, shape their, and put on make-up with intent to become more charming. Some people do this for just themselves, while some others for the people around them, and some others for both themselves and the people around them. Youth and beauty are desirable and charming values. Although some people deny this, this is a reality, particularly in our time. The sense of beauty had differences in every era and every society. For example, the sense of beauty in the plump figures in Rubens' 17th-century paintings is in contradiction with the sense of beauty expressed in "skinny women" in the 1960s. Studies showed that attractive people, whether men or women, are more successful in all fields, they work in better jobs, become better salespersons, and earn more money. The presence of such a demand for beauty and aesthetics in society made Plastic Surgery popular, which is actually a repair surgery. Plastic means formable. The relationship of the patient with Plastic Surgery begins with being dissatisfied with a part of her body. First, she makes analysis by comparing her part with the same part of others. After that, reads the magazines about the subject, watches television and follows other information media, and shares the matter with her friends as well as the hairdresser and beauty salon staff. She makes an appointment with a Plastic Surgeon, as a result of guidance of all these. It would be useful to choice a Plastic Surgeon, who is registered in the Turkish Society of Plastic Reconstructive, and Aesthetic Surgery. Changing the appearance of a part in the body, creates a permanent and general impact on the individual. Enhancement of self-image and self-confidence occurs with the improvement of the individual's physical form. With Plastic Surgery, an individual becomes happy in every aspect. She is happy with her new appearance, her feelings, as well as with looking better in her clothes, the thinks others say about her, and the changes in her body, which are noticed by others. In a sense, Plastic Surgery is a kind of psychosurgery. The gap between the physical appearance and spiritual world of the individual is filled by plastic surgery. A breast surgeon's approach to the breast is like a sculptor's approach. But there are some differences. The working material of a sculptor is clay; and he/she can give it any form he/she wants. However, a surgeon's material is tissues. Every operation done on tissues is a trauma, and tissues give reaction to traumas in the form of "inflammation" and wound healing. Therefore, this is a process and comes with problems such as edema and redness. For this reason, a surgeon's job is extremely difficult, even if in terms of art. At this point, the patient's expectations are another important issue. Patient-physician dialogue before surgery prevents most of discrepancies. Breast aesthetics addresses two senses: sight (visual) and touch (tactile). Ensuring the breast to look good is not adequate aesthetically. Its consistency, temperature, surface harmony, mobility, and particularly its ability to feel touches in the nipple-areola area are also important.

In girls, development of the breast and its shaping are generally completed after their growth in height between 13 and 16 years of age. During this period, the breast is round and hemispherical shaped. Its upper half is slightly and the lower half is completely convex. The nipple is projected forward. With increasing age, and the processes such as pregnancy and giving birth, the breast tissue increasingly sags; and first the breast tissue and then the nipple go down below the inframammary line.

Breast involution

A normal breast is averagely 300 to 500 grams. A normal breast is at an outward angle of 45-degree to the chest wall. Usually the left breast is slightly larger and more sagging. Normal breast appearance — Breast involution:  The nipple is normally positioned at an inward and upward angle of 10-15 degrees to the breast. Its distance from the notch below the neck is about 19-21 cm. Its distance from the inframammary line is 7-8 cm. The areola diameter is approximately 4 cm. Normal nipple and areola position — Lines Towards the Breasts:  The lines extending from neighboring areas toward the nipple normally have a sweet continuity. This is the artistic expression of mammoplasty. Rather than changes that occur with age, scars and deformities related to a trauma or surgery can disrupt these continuities. Therefore, incisions to be performed in mammoplasty should be planned in such a way as not to disrupt these continuities. Cleavage: The plump appearance of the breasts with a groove between them, which is seen through a decollete dress, is an important part of the erotic image of woman. In fact, the thing that ensures these is the clothes and bras pushing the breasts upward and towards the center. When naked, almost no woman has such an appearance. However, this is one of the primary demands of women who apply for aesthetic breast surgery. This appearance can be possible (even if partially) with only implant placement. Symmetry: A real symmetry does not exist even in nature itself. No part of the body is completely symmetrical with the corresponding part at the opposite side. It is not possible to ensure a complete symmetry after surgery. Before the surgery, this issue should be discussed in detail with patients, who are obsessed with symmetry.